- When a person travels, he must reduce the four Rak’at Salat to two Rak’at (otherwise known Qasr), with the condition that the journey is no less than eight Farsakh [Eight Farsakh is approximately equal to 45 Kilometers].
- If a traveler whose Salat is prayed in full, goes from a place, such as his hometown (Watan), to another place which is four Farsakh away, and returns, which is also four Farsakh, then the Salat on this trip will be prayed as Qasr.
- For someone who is travelling, the moment that the Salat must be recited in Qasr is from the minimum distance that he goes away such that he cannot hear the Adhan of that city, the people of that city can no longer see him, and he cannot see the people of that city. In the event that he wants to recite the Salat before having traveled this amount, it must be recited in full.
- If a person wishes to travel to a place, and there are two roads leading there, and one road is less than eight Farsakh and the other road is eight Farsakh or more, then if one takes the road that is eight Farsakh or more, then the Salat must be recited as Qasr.
However, if one takes the road that is less than eight Farsakh, the Salat must be prayed in full. For example, if one goes from his home (Watan) to a village that has two roads leading to it, and the first road is four Farsakh and the other one is three Farsakh, then if one takes the first road and returns from that road, the Salat during the travel and at that village will be prayed as Qasr. But, if one goes by the first road, and returns by another road, or goes by the second road, and returns by that road, then in the event that the complete trip is less than eight Farsakh, the Salat on this trip and at that village will be prayed as full.
- In the following examples various of journeys, the Salat will be recited as full:
- If before travelling eight Farsakh, one passes through one’s Watan and stops there, or one stays for ten days in one place.
- From the beginning, one does not have the intention to travel eight Farsakh, and without the intention starts a journey; for example, one who is searching for something that is lost.
- During the journey, one decided to return from the trip, meaning that before reaching to the point of four Farsakh, one changes his mind (about the journey and goes back home).
- One whose job or profession is travelling; for example, the driver of a train and those drivers who travel out of the city such as Pilots, and Sailors (whose profession is travelling).
- Someone whose job is in another place and usually at least once every ten days, travels to that place and returns. For example, students who go to another city to study, and every Friday return back to their own Watan (city). Someone who is travelling for Haram purposes; for example, the journey of someone who travels to hurt or annoy one"s father and mother.
6. In the following places, the Salat will be prayed in full:
- In one’s hometown (Watan).
- In a place where one has made the intention to stay for ten days.
- In a place where one has stayed for 30 days in a state of doubt. Meaning that one is not sure that one will stay or leave (this place), and one stays in this stays for 30 days and does not go to any other place, then in this event, after 30 days one must recite the Salat in full.
Where is one’s Home (Watan)?
- The Watan is that place where a person, by his own will, chooses to live in; sometimes that place is where he was born and the place where his father and mother live, and (sometimes) he himself chooses that place to live in.
- For as long as a child stays with the father and mother and has not separated from them, the Watan that is his Father and Mother"s is also considered as his Watan. (This rule applies) even if he was not born there. Once he separates from them and picks another place as his Watan, then that (new) place will be considered as his Watan. Therefore as an example: If the Father and Mother are from Isfahan (Iran), but for a period of time live in Shiraz (Iran) to work and have to intention to return to Isfahan, and a child is born there (in Shiraz), but since Isfahan was not the Want of the father and mother"s, then as long as the child lives with his Father and Mother, the city of Isfahan will be considered as his Watan, and if he travels there, he must recite his Salat in full.
- If the place where the person is staying is other than his original Watan, and for him to transfer from that place to another place, for example, from there to other parts, involve him going through various challenges or difficulties, then that place will be considered as his Watan.
- If someone has the intention to stay in a place for a small period of time that is not his original Watan, and then go to another place, that place will not be counted as his Watan. For example, University students who for a period of time, move to another city to study.
- If a person, without the intention of staying in a place for ever, or without the intentioned of leaving that place, stays in a place for such a period of time that the people of that area count him as a resident there, then that place will have the ruling of his Watan.
- If someone goes to a place that was previously his Watan, but now he has turned away from that place; meaning, he has decided that he will not return there with the intention to live, then he must not recite his Salat in full, even if he has not yet chosen another place for his Watan.
- The traveler who is returning to his Watan must read his Salat in full from the time he can see the boundaries of his city.
The intention of ten days
- If a traveler who made the intention of staying in a place for ten days stays for more than ten days in that place, then as long as he has not traveled (from this place), his Salat must be recited in full. It is not necessary for him to make the intention that he will be staying for another ten days.
- . If a traveler, who had made the intention to stay in a place for ten days, changes his mind, then:
- If before reciting any four Rak’at Salat, he changes his intention (to stay there) then he must pray his Salat in the form of Qasr (two Rak’at).
- If after reciting one four Rak’at Salat, he turns back from his intention, then for the time that he is in that place, he must recite his Salat in full.